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Published 17.02.2003



Ph.M. Kanarev,  D.A. Normov


The Kuban State Agrarian University.  350044 Krasnodar, 13, Kalinin Street,  Russia

E-mail: kanphil@mail.kuban.ru


Abstract.  It has been disclosed that new physical chemistry of the micro world facilitates the description of the ozone molecule fusion processes within the framework of the law of conservation of energy.

Key words: nucleus, atom, molecule, electron, photon, energy of bond.




             Ozone is a gaseous substance, which consists of three-atom molecules .  In order to destroy the oxygen molecule, it is necessary to spend 5.13 eV of energy. During fusion of two ozone molecule, 2.99 eV of energy are released. As a result, energy difference  5.13-2.99=2.15  eV takes place. The authors of the fundamental monograph [1] devoted to ozone assert that energy of 2.15 eV is absorbed by the third unknown particle , which takes part in this process. The oxygen atom, the molecules of oxygen and ozone as well as any other molecule being present in the ozone molecule fusion zone can play the role of this particle. Such assumption is made for the purpose that the law of conservation of energy will not be violated. The ozone molecule fusion reaction is written in such a way


              .                                                      (1)


               At any rate, it is a strange assumption. It is known that each portion of energy has its owner in the processes of fusion and dissociation of the molecules. That’s why it is necessary to find a true owner of energy of  2.15 eV [1], [2].



               Prior to the analysis of energetics of the chemical bonds of the ozone molecule, it is necessary to understand energetics of the chemical bonds of the atom  and the oxygen molecule .

An oxygen atom is the eight element of the periodic table. It is situated in its sixth group. The structure of its nucleus is given in Fig. 1, the structure of oxygen atom is in Fig. 2 [2].











Fig. 1. Diagram of oxygen atom nucleus: light – the protons, dark and grey – the neutrons



Fig. 2. Diagram of the oxygen atom


In Fig. 2, a diagram of the oxygen atom originating from the structure of its nucleus is given (Fig. 1). It has eight electrons. The electrons situated on the axis of symmetry are the most active ones (1, 2). Other six electrons situated in the plane, which are perpendicular to an axis line (a line of symmetry), take away electrons 1 and 2 from the nucleus at a large distance by their total electric field forming the conditions for their large activity during the interaction with the electrons of the neighbouring atoms [2].

The least ionization energy of the electron of the oxygen atom is equal to =13.618 eV. Binding energy of this electron with the atomic nucleus corresponding to the first energy level is equal to =13.752 eV. Let us call this electron the first one. The calculation of energy indices of this electron, including its binding energies  with the atomic nucleus according to the formulas (2) and (3), gives the following results (Table 1) [2].






         Let us pay attention to the fact that  there is no energy of orbital movement of the electron in the atom in the mathematical model (2) of the formation of the spectra of the atoms and the ions. It appears from this that the electron has no orbital movement in the atom. Rotating in relation to its axis it can only presess on the atomic nucleus (Fig. 2) [2].

Table 1.  Spectrum of the first electron of the oxygen atom































               The oxygen molecule structure is given in Fig. 3, a. It is formed by means of a connection of unlike magnetic poles of axis electrons of two oxygen atoms [2]. As it is clear, the oxygen molecule has fourteen free electrons, which are ready for bond. The axial electrons 1’ and 2 are the most remote ones from the structure of the whole molecule; they have the greatest activity, i.e. aptitude for bond with the electrons of other atoms [2].



Fig. 3. Diagram of binding energy distribution between the electrons in the oxygen molecule



It is known that the fusion process of the oxygen molecules is accompanied with a release of 495 kJ/mole of energy, or in calculation for one molecule



What principle does the nature go by distributing energy 5.13 eV between the oxygen molecule electrons  (Fig. 3, a)? Energy of 5.13 eV is a thermal binding energy between the electrons 1 and 2’ of two oxygen atoms (Fig. 3, a). When the oxygen molecule is formed, it is emitted in the form of the photons by the electrons, which enter the bond. It appears from this that it is equal to an amount of energies of two photons emitted by these electrons. Consequently, each contacting electron emits a photon with energies of 5.13/2=2.565 eV (Fig. 3). According to Table 1, in this case the valence electrons are situated between the second energy level and the third one [2].

Two oxygen atoms are connected into a molecule in an excitation state. The excitation state is the state of an atom when its valence electrons are situated at such distances from the nuclei when the binding energy between them is reduced to the thousandth fractions of an electron-volt. In such state, the atom can loose an electron and become an ion. Otherwise, without loosing electrons it is connected with an electron of the neighbouring atom by the valence electron, and a process of oxygen molecule formation begins. It is an exothermic process when the axis valence electrons 1 and 2’ emit the photons, descend on lower energy levels and release 2.565x2=5.13 eV.

               In order to destroy the oxygen molecule and to form the ozone molecule, spark discharge or photon flux with energies, which are somewhat larger than binding energy of 2.565?2=5.13 eV between the oxygen atoms in its molecule, are used (Fig. 3, b). It is known that ozone is formed during ultraviolet radiation with the wavelength of . Photon energy, which corresponds to this wave length, is equal to  



         As ozone is formed according to equation,  it is necessary to destroy one oxygen molecule  for fusion of two molecules of ozone . To this effect, it is necessary to excite 2 electrons having spent 2.565x2=5.13 eV for this purpose (Fig. 4).



Fig, 4. Diagram of binding energy distribution in the ozone molecule


          It is known that 144 kJ are released during dissociation one mole of ozone. As a result, we have per molecule:



           Ozone formation process begins when even the smallest temperature reduction takes place in ozone where the oxygen atoms are in excited state. Their valence electrons are connected with the valence electrons of the oxygen atoms in its molecules and emit the photons with such total energy that the remainder of energy absorbed earlier (5.13 eV) will be equal to endothermic energy of 1.49x2=2.99 eV of formation of two ozone molecule. Energy of the emitted photons will be equal to 5.13-2.99=2.15 eV. This energy is spent for formation of the bonds in two ozone molecules, which have 4 valence electrons. Binding energy corresponding to one electron is equal to 2.15/4=0.54 eV (Fig. 4). In this case, valence electrons are almost on the fifth energy levels (Table 1).

          As it is clear (Fig. 4), the ozone molecule is longer than the oxygen molecule (Fig. 3); binding energy (0.54 eV) between the third one, which is connected by the oxygen atom, is fivefold less than between the oxygen atoms (2.56 eV) in its molecule. As a result, stability of the ozone molecule is less than stability of the oxygen molecule, and it is destroyed easier forming the oxygen molecules and its atoms. For this effect, availability of light photons, which energy is changed within the range of 0.016-3.27 eV, is enough (Table 2).




Table 2. Electromagnetic emission scale ranges



Wave-length, m

Energy, eV

1. Low- frequency band

2. Broadcast band

3. Microwave band

4. Relic band (maximum)

5. Infrared band

6. Light band

7. Ultraviolet band

8. Roentgen band

9. Gamma band


      After destruction of two ozone molecules, the valence electrons of the separated oxygen atoms pass into exited state absorbing 0.54x4=2,15 eV of energy. When they reach the highest energy levels, they are separated; after the free state stage, they form an oxygen molecule emitting the photons with total energy equal to 5.13 eV. Difference between emitted energy of 5.13 eV and energy of 2.15 eV absorbed by four electrons is equal to the dissociation energy of  two ozone molecule of  2.99 eV, or 1.44 kJ/mole.




         The disclosed models of the oxygen atom and molecule as well as empirical mathematical law of formation of the spectra of the atoms and the ions give the possibility to make a detailed analysis of energy balance of formation of the molecules of oxygen and ozone, which corresponds to the experimental data completely.




1. V.V. Lunin, M.P. Popovich, S.N. Tkachenko. Physical chemistry of ozone. M. Publishing house of the Moscow University.1998. 475 pages.

2. Ph.M. Kanarev. The Foundation of Physchemistry of Micro World. Krasnodar. 2002. pag. 320.


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