15. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM
The law of conservation of angular momentum is one of the main laws of the Nature. In order to have a clear idea concerning the essence of this law, let us consider the phenomenon, which can be easily observed and which demonstrates how it works.
If you watch competitions in figure skating by TV, you remember how a figure skater changes speed of his rotation relative to the axis, which passes through his body. At first he rotates with small speed with his arms stretched to the sides. Then he clasps his arms to his breast or rises them upwards, and his rotation is accelerated sharply. If he stretches his arms, the rate of his rotation is reduced. What’s the matter? This phenomenon is governed by one of the most fundamental laws of the Nature – the law of conservation of angular momentum. It runs that if no external force influences the body, angular momentum, or in other words, moment of momentum of a body, remains constant all the time.
Thus, let us formulate the essence of the law of conservation of angular momentum. Mathematical expression of this law is as follows: . What about it? You have recognized Planck’s constant. The Nature has placed this law into this constant. It operates under the conditions of lack of external influence on a rotating body. If the rotation of the figure skater is considered, he experiences external influences. It is manifested as resistance created by air as well as in the form of friction forces influencing the skates of the figure skater. Thus, this law is manifested here not in its full value. Nevertheless, small resistance of the air and ice give us the possibility to see the manifestation of this law. Now let us consider the above-mentioned expression of Planck’s constant . Figure skater’s mass is not changed at the moment of rotation. But the distribution of this mass is changed. When he stretches his arms, they are moved away from the axis of his rotation, and moment of inertia of the figure skater is increased, because the value, which is equal to arms’ mass multiplied by the square of distances of their centres of masses from the axis of rotation is increased. The following fact is obvious: in order that Planck’s constant remains constant, rate of rotation of the figure skater should be reduced. As we have already mentioned, it takes place due to small value of external influence on it. When he places his arms nearer to the axis of his rotation, the value is reduced, because the distance is reduced. In order that the value remains constant, a rate of rotation of the figure skater should be increased. It does take place. If there were no resistance, the figure skater could rotate eternally .
We are impressed by constancy of Planck’s constant. It is confirmed by many calculations and many experimental data. It proves the fact that constancy of Planck’s constant is governed by some fundamental law of the nature. Now we see that it is the law of conservation of angular momentum , , .
Above on we showed how this law is demonstrated in behavior of photons of all frequencies, in behavior of the electrons during their transitions in the atoms and during formation of the molecules.
Above on showed how this law is manifested in behaviour of the photons of all frequencies, in behaviour of the electrons during their energy transitions in the atoms and during the formations of the molecules; now we’ll show a number of examples of the manifestation of this law in the nature. It is clear that some of these examples are purely hypothetical one, they should undergo a thorough check. Nevertheless, it is necessary to make them in order to attract the attentions of the investigators to the global role of the law of conservation of angular momentum.
Fig. 102. Directions of the vector of the Planck’s constant and of the vector of magnetic moment , of the electron coincide with the direction of the right-hand movement
As it is clear from Fig. 102,a the directions of the vector of angular momentum (the Planck’s constant) and the vector of magnetic moment (Fig. 102, b) of the electron coincide and correspond to the right-hand rotation of the electron in relation to its axis. Let us call the electromagnetic field, which is formed by this combination of the direction of the vectors and the Planck’s field. As this field is available near the electron, which is a connecting link between the atoms in the molecules, it should be manifested in the structure of the molecules. Then let us pay attention to the rules, according to which the direction of the vectors and is determined (Fig. 102, a,b). These vectors are directed in such a way that the electron rotates counterclockwise when if you look from above from their ends. Such rotation is called right-hand rotational, or right-hand one (Fig. 102, b).
The lack of the orbital movement of the electron in the atom is the nest important result. It is the consequence of the law of the formation of the spectra of the atoms and the ions. The interaction of the electrons with the atom nuclei can be considered, the hydrogen atom being an example.
Hydrogen is the simplest atom. It has one electron, and its nucleus consists of one proton. The information found out by us concerning the structure of the electron allows to get a notion about the formation process of this atom.
One can suppose that magnetic fields of both the proton and the electron are similar to magnetic fields of the bar magnets and have magnetic poles (Fig. 103). As proton mass is much more greater than electron mass, the hydrogen mass formation will begin with the convergence of the electron to the proton. We know that in free state the electron has magnetic moment and rather large magnetic field strength in its geometrical centre, that’s why both electrical force and magnetic forces will govern the process of the convergence of the electron with the proton at the first stage.
As the magnetic fields of both the proton and the electron have the largest strength about their axes of rotation, the electron and the proton will rotate align during the convergence. If their opposite magnetic moments and are directed to meet each other, both the electrical forces and the magnetic ones will draw the electron and the proton together, and the proton will absorb the electron and will become a neutron. When the electron is drawn together with the proton and their like magnetic poles and are directed to meet each other, Coulomb’s forces acting normally to toroidal surface of the electron will draw it together with the proton, and magnetic forces will repulse them from one
another. An equilibrium will be set between these forces, and the structure being formed in such a way is the hydrogen atom (Fig. 103) , .
Fig. 103. Diagram of hydrogen atom model
Magnetic moment of the electron is by two order greater than the magnetic moment of the proton, that’s why the right-handed Planck’s field is formed round the hydrogen atom. As the hydrogen atom is a connecting link between the atoms of many molecules (hydrogen links), the right-handed electromagnetic fields should be formed in the area of the formation of these links, we have called these fields the Planck’s fields. Let us consider it taking the formation of a hydrogen molecule as an example.
In accordance with the existing notions the hydrogen molecule can have two structures. In the structure of orthohydrogen the directions of vectors of magnetic moments of the protons are turned to one direction, and in the structure of parahydrogen to opposite directions (Fig. 104) .
Fig. 104. Diagram of hydrogen molecule H2 : a) - orthohydrogen, b) – parahydrogen
Fig. 105. Model of DNA double helix twisted by the Planck’s filed to the right
Thus, the electrons acting as the right-handed electromagnetic gyroscopes unite the atoms into the molecules by their electromagnetic fields, which we have called the Planck’s fields. The availability of the rotation process of the electrons gives the possibility to suppose that this process forms the right-handed Planck’s field near the electron.
As the electron and the hydrogen atom are the main connecting links between the atoms in the molecules, their right-handed Planck’s fields should influence this process. It is known that DNA molecule helix is twisted to the right (Fig. 105) .
We have every reason to believe that the direction of DNA helix twisting to the right is stipulated by the Planck’s fields of the electrons and the hydrogen atoms, which mainly form the chemical bonds between the atoms of this molecule . Thus, the direction of DNA helix twisting is connected with the rotation direction, which is characterized by the most fundamental law of the Nature – the law of conservation of angular momentum. The Nature has put the Planck’s constant, the most fundamental constant, into this law.
Fig. 106. Rotation direction of the Planck’s field coincides with the direction of twisting of the majority of the shells
Then let us pay attention to the fact that the majority of the shells (Fig. 106) of the mollusca and snails is twisted to the right, and we have every reason to believe that this direction of the shell twisting is the sequence of the right-handed Planck’s fields of the electrons and the hydrogen atoms. Obviously, this reason determines the prior development of the right-hand of a human being. A shell twisted to the left and a person – lefthander are the exceptions from this rule. But the influence of the Planck’s field on various natural phenomena is not restricted by it.
If the sum of all vectors of the spins (the Planck’s constants) of the electrons and the atoms of the Earth is added and designated with symbol (Fig. 107), the sum of all vectors directed to the center of the Earth will be not only equal to zero, but they compensate each other. Vectors are directed oppositely, but a part of them remains uncompensated near the surface of the Earth. As a result, near the surface of the Earth the right-handed Planck’s field should be formed, which determines the direction of shell twisting. How is it possible to discover the existence of such field? The simplest way is to weigh the rotating gyroscope.
Fig. 107. Diagram of formation of non-compensated right-handed Planck’s field on the surface of the Earth
If vector of the rotating gyroscope 3 (Fig. 107) will be opposite to the direction of vector near the earth surface, weak magnetic fields corresponding to the directions of these vectors will interact with their like magnetic poles and push them off from each other. It is registered during the experiment. Gravity influencing the right-handed gyroscope, is less than gravity influencing the non-rotating one .
If the right-handed gyroscope falls on the surface of the Earth, the vector of its Planck’s field will be directed to the non-compensated vector of the Planck’s field near the surface of the Earth. The like poles of the magnetic fields being formed will be directed to each other. As a result, free fall acceleration of such a gyroscope should be reduced. This fact has been confirmed experimentally by Hideo Haysaka, the Japanese scientist .
It is natural to suppose that this phenomenon should be manifested in larger scale on the Earth and even in the space. There are the experimental results, which confirm the existence of the zones on the surface of the Earth, which have different magnetic field strength. The Russian scientists call them the torsion fields , . It is natural that strength of such a field will be maximal in such zone of the surface of the Earth where the substance molecules are rather free to position their rotating Planck’s fields in relation to the general Planck’s field near the surface of the Earth. First of all, they are the zones of bedding of oil and gas. Such field is found in our galaxy. Vector , which characterizes this field has been found by Yu. A. Baurov, the Russian scientist, and his colleagues, and its has been called a cosmologic vector potential , , .
It is clear that we have given a brief description of a chain of natural phenomena where the influence of angular momentum is demonstrated. This coincidence is not an accidental one, that’s why it should be studied thoroughly. Above on we showed how the law of conservation of angular momentum is implemented during the formation of electromagnetic structures of the photons and the electrons as well as the atoms and the molecules.
Thus, incompleteness of the existing axiomatics of exact sciences is the main hindrance to fruitfulness of theoretical investigations. When we have widened and systematized it, we have opened the way for theoretical analysis of many details of the microworld, which have been inaccessible to modern theories. New axiomatics of exact sciences gives the investigators the new criteria for evaluation of safety of any theory. That’s why it can be called axiomatics of natural sciences.
The list of axioms is headed by the most important axioms of natural sciences: space and time are absolute, space, matter and time are indivisible. Then the Euclidean mathematical axioms follow, which require additions.
Lorentz’s transformations, the foundation of the theories of relativity by A. Einstein, contradict one of the main axioms of natural sciences: space - matter - time unity axiom, that’s why it is unnecessary to search other evidences of flimsiness of these theories.
The second Einstein’s postulate acquires more precise wording, which retains it to the framework of classical notions and opens the prospects of usefulness in the development of physical ideas.
The new model of the photon and the theory of its description confirm erroneousness of our many notions concerning the nature of electromagnetic radiation and the wrong interpretation of some astrophysical phenomena.
The models of the electron and the law of formation of the spectra of the atoms and the ions change our notions concerning the structure of the atoms and the molecules. The periodic law of chemical elements is added by periodicity of formation of the structure of the atomic nuclei. The process of transmutation of the atomic nuclei of chemical elements acquires vivid outlines. The important prerequisites of the control of this process are formed.
Chemists get a new instrument of cognition of the structure of the atoms, the ions and the molecules. The notions concerning the formation process of chemical bonds are simplified significantly, and the possibility of more exact calculation of their energy indices appears.
As the examples of implementation of the results of theoretical investigations, the energy processes during plasma water electrolysis in order to get additional energy are described.
Theoretically and experimentally the possibility of extraction of power from chemical bonds of water molecules has been demonstrated. It has been found that during the usual and plasma electrolysis of water electric power is converted to other types of energy with COP that is more than one. It has been proved that the fusion of the atoms and the molecules of hydrogen is a source of additional energy.
In the Russian market, three firms Yusmar, Thermovikhr and Noteka sell cavitation equipment for water heating with the energy effectiveness index up to 150%.
The first understanding of the processes, which take place at this time, has become possible due to a new theoretical direction in the description of the physical and chemical processes. The experimental results and their analysis serve as one of the indices of fruitfulness of this direction, which remains unknown to a wide range of the specialists. There is every reason to believe that power significance of the problems being analysed will promote critical analysis of the new theoretical ideas of the author.