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12.2       Diagrams of Models of Plasma Electrolytic Reactors


Our theoretical investigations have been accompanied by the publication and patenting the results being obtained. It is known that a patent for a mode and device is the most valuable one, thats why a claim for such a patent was made one of the first claims. Five years later the patent No. ........ for the mode and the device for production of thermal energy, hydrogen and oxygen was obtained (Fig. 86).

Fig. 85 shows a diagram of the simplest plasma electrolytic reactor, for which the patent No. 2157862 has been received [86].





Fig. 85. Diagram of plasma- electrolytic reactor (the patent No. 2157862)

1 - housing of the reactor, 2- lid of the reactor, 3 anode, 4 cathode (inlet pipe),

5 bushing, 6 outlet pipe, 7 interelectrode chamber



Chamber 1 and lid 2 of the reactor (Fig. 85) can be made of acrylic plastic or fluoroplastic. It is desirable to make anode 3 of titanium covered with ruthenium oxide (ortho) or simply of titanium. Hole cathode 4 is made of molybdenum. Bushing 5 and outlet pipe 6 are made of fluoroplastic. The areas of working surfaces of the anode and the cathode are chosen in such a way that density of current density on the cathode exceeds current density on the anode several dozen times, and the distance between the anode and the cathode is equal to 810 cm. Weak (one molar) solutions of alkali, acids, etc., can serve as working solutions.





Fig. 86. Diagram of plasma- electrolytic reactor

(the patent No. )



Fig. 87 shows a diagram of the reactor, for which the patent No. 2157427 has been received [85]. The diagram of the plasma electrolytic reactor, for which the patent No. 2157861 has been received, is given in Fig. 88 [87].





Fig. 87. Diagram of a model of the plasma electrolytic reactor (patent No. 2157427): 1- body, 5 lead, 9 anode, 10- cathode, 13 magnet




Fig. 88. Diagram of a model of the plasma electrolytic reactor (patent No. 2157861) 1- body, 4 lower lead, 5 upper lead, 10 and 14 anodes, 11 and 15 cathodes



Wed like to warn in advance that the effect is demonstrated in a narrow range of the combination of various parameters of the reactor and plasma electrolytic process.

The plasma - electrolytic reactor generates energy being available in heat of heated water, water steam of various temperature, atomic and molecular hydrogen, oxygen, ozone, light radiation and noise.

It is not easy to register each of the above-mentioned types of energy separately. It is easy to measure thermal energy being available in heated water and stream. The experience has shown that it is enough for the proof of positive efficiency of the plasma electrolytic reactor.

Efficiency of the reactor determines the general index of efficiency taking into consideration electric power being introduced into the reactor thermal energy , which is accumulated in heated water solution and water vapour and energy being available in released gases (hydrogen and oxygen) as well as light energy and noise energy [109]




But one should bear in mind that not all designs of the reactors and not all operation modes demonstrate positive (K0 >1) efficiency. It is easy to burn plasma, but it is difficult to produce additional energy from it.

Nevertheless, the official commission, which consisted of the specialists of the adjacent fields of knowledge, proved positive energy efficacy of one of the reactors and one of the modes of its operation.




12.3.               Laws of Change of Voltage, Current and Power in Power Supply Circuit of the Plasma-electrolytic Reactor


Let us analyse the oscillograms of voltage, current and power in the electric circuit, which supplies the plasma-electrolytic reactor with power in the gas operation mode. Figs 89, 90, 91 show an oscillogram of voltage, current and power obtained by us together with the specialists of St.-Petersburg firm Algorithm. The measurements were carried out with the help of the electron oscillograph Handyscope-2, which registered 10000 ordinates in 0.1 range; it provided high accuracy of the measurements. The measurements results correspond the reactor mode intended for production of gases, not heat. The measurements were carried out at the same time in three ways: with the help of the voltmeter and ammeter, the electric meter and the electron oscillograph. The following readings were registered in the protocol of control experiments during the experiment (300 s) given for one hour of the reactor operation:


1. Voltmeter and ammeter 587 W;

2. Electron oscillograph 716 W;

3. Electric meter 720 W.


The commission has made the conclusion that the measurements of the electric power consumed by the plasma-electrolytic reactor made with the help of the electric meter are the correct ones. It is necessary to add that the given data correspond only to one operation of the reactor, which plasma glow irregularity can be clearly seen without any measurement and is easily observed due to sharp deviations of the pointer of the ammeter. But there are such operation modes, at which plasma burning is stable, and the pointer of the ammeter does not oscillate. Unfortunately, the indices of such operation mode have not been registered with the help of the electron oscillograph, and we have no comparative data on measurements for this mode. We can only suppose that the readings of the voltmeter and the ammeter deviate insignificantly from the indices of the electron oscillograph and the electric meter [109].




Fig. 89. Voltage change oscillogram in power supply net of the plasma-electrolytic reactor



Fig. 89 shows the oscillogram of voltage across the circuit of power supply of the reactor adjusted for gas operation mode. The voltmeter has shown stable voltage of 220 V at this mode. Sharp deviations of voltage are observed on the oscillogram. Carrier frequency of rectified voltage of 100 Hz has harmonic with less amplitude and greater oscillation frequency. The reduction of the amplitude of carrier frequency is interrupted in a simple way: short-time increase of current has led to short-time reduction of voltage.

It is more difficult to explain a voltage amplitude increase. Availability of a capacitor or an inductor in the circuit can be the cause, energy can be accumulated there and then released increasing voltage in the power supply net. It is difficult to estimate capacity value of the reactor consisting of the flat anode and the core cathode. The transformer has inductive capacity in the power supply circuit. It is possible to determine its role in the formation of voltage oscillations, which amplitude is above the carrier frequency amplitude. Three oscillations with amplitude up to 600 V and higher are the exception (Fig. 89). The processes, which take place in the reactor can be the only source of these oscillations. Which processes? We do not know yet. We can suppose that they correspond to the processes of birth of helium atoms, then we should acknowledge availability of cold nuclear fusion. These oscillations can be connected with the process of trapping of the electrons by the protons and the formation of the neutrons [51]. An exact answer for this question will be given due to the results of further investigations.




Fig. 90. Current change oscillogram in power supply circuit of the plasma-electrolytic reactor



Fig. 90 shows the electric current oscillogram. Its maximal values are 25 amperes, but these peaks are connected in time with the voltage increase peaks (Fig. 89). Gaps of time are clearly seen when current is completely unavailable. Its average value is equal to 3.8 amperes. Intensive deviations of the pointer of the ammeter have been observed [109].

Certainly, the gaps of time connected with absence of current in the power supply circuit of the reactor have much information concerning the plasma-electrolytic reactor itself (Fig. 90).




Fig. 91. Power change oscillogram in power supply circuit of the plasma-electrolytic reactor



First of all, chaotic character of the proton separation of hydrogen atoms from water molecules is a cause of such chaotic change of strength of current. The gas vapour mixture promotes it. As it is accumulated near the cathode and has no time to exceed the limits of the pericathode space, it insulates partially, sometimes completely the cathode from the solution increasing resistance in power supply circuit. As a result, the electric circuit is constantly disconnected, value of current is reduced up to zero. In the moments when strength of current is equal to zero, the plasma is extinguished. When pericathode space becomes free from gas vapour mixture, and the solution comes into contact with the cathode, strength of current is increased sharply. Thus, when the gases are generated, the reactor operates in pulse mode, at which other resonance phenomena are possible, and, consequently, the sharp increase of efficiency of the process [109].

Power change regularity (Fig. 91) in power supply circuit of the plasma-electrolytic reactor in the gaseous mode of its operation is similar to the change of strength of current. Peak power reaches 8 kW though its mean value is only 720 W.




12.4. Protocol of Control Experiments


May 22, 1998, City of Krasnodar


The plasma electrolysis reactor was elaborated by the chair of theoretical mechanics of the Kuban State Agricultural University by Prof. Ph.M. Kanarev, doctor of technical sciences and E.D. Zykov, candidate of chemical sciences, and was presented for control testing to a commission formed by [65], [109]:

V.V. Fomin head of the Chair of Physics of the Kuban State Agricultural University, Doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, professor, the Chairman of the commission;

Members if the commission, including:

A.S. Trofimov, professor at the Chair of Industrial Thermoenergetics of the Kuban State Technological University, Doctor of technical sciences, Honoured Scientist of Russia, Associate Member of the International Academy of Higher Education, winner of the prize of the Government of the Russian Federation for science and engineering (thermal power engineer);

N.P. Berezina, Doctor of chemical sciences, professor of the Kuban State University (electrochemist);

Ph. M. Kanarev, head of the Chair of Theoretical Mechanics of the Kuban State Agricultural University, Doctor of technical sciences, professor;

N.A. Singaevsky, Candidate of technical sciences, assistant professor of the Krasnodar higher military school for rocket troops, colonel (power engineer);

E.D. Zykov, Candidate of chemical sciences (physical chemistry of surface phenomena).

The commission has performed control experiments of the plasma-electrolytic reactor.

1. The unit with the diameter of 130 mm and the height of 100 mm is made of dielectric material (acrylic plastic and Teflon) has the inter-electrode chamber, the anode, the cathode and the connections for feeding of working solution into the reactor and withdrawal of heated liquid and vapour - gaseous mixture out of it.

2. The reactor is connected to the supply line of rectified current with adjustable voltage.

3. Diluted alkaline water solution with flow controlled by a valve according to the flow measuring instrument serves as heat - transfer medium.

4. The solution and the vapour - gaseous mixture heated by the reactor are removed from the reactor via a branch pipe.

The reactor operates as follows. The desired flow of the solution is established with the help of a rotameter, and power with initial voltage near to zero is turned on. Then voltage is stepped up, and at 150-200 V stable plasma is formed in the pericathode space. In a few seconds after the appearance of plasma the outflow of the heated solution and the vapour - gaseous mixture starts. Quantity of vapour can be controlled. In order to increase the accuracy of the measurements the reactor has been adjusted for heating of the solution at a minimal quantity of vapours being formed.




Instruments and Equipment Used for the Experiment


The instruments used for input power measurement: an electric meter, voltmeter (accuracy class 0.2, GOST 8711-78), ammeter (accuracy class 0.2, GOST 871160).

The instruments used for output power measurement: mercury thermometers with value of a division of 1 and 2 degrees and with the scales up to 100 and up to 160 degrees, respectively; measuring vessels with capacity of 3 litres, measuring glasses with capacity of 1000 ml, a stopwatch with value of a division of 0.1 s, a balance with value of a division of 5 grams.




Methodology of Experiment


A measuring vessel with capacity of 3 litres was placed 0.7 meters above the reactor on the balance and was connected with the reactor with the help of the pipes via the rotameter used as a solution flow rate indicator. The desired flow rate was established, and the reactor was started. After its operation mode became stable, and the solution level was lowered to the control marker, the stopwatch was turned on, and the solution weight change indication and counting of the number of the electric meter disk rotations and the recording of the reading of the voltmeter and the ammeter began. Simultaneously the outflow of the solution is connected to the measuring glass, which weight was determined beforehand.

During the experiment the following data were registered: the time of starting and ending of the experiment, the electric meter readings, the mean values of voltmeter and ammeter as well as the reading of the thermometers measuring the temperature at the inlet and the outlet of the solution. Besides, the insignificant deviations of the solution consumption were periodically adjusted according to the reading of the rotameter.

The experiment was finished when the reduction of the weight of the solution in the measuring vessel arranged on the balance attained the check value. At this moment the outlet of the solution from the reactor was switched to a spare vessel.




Experimental Results


The preliminary tests performed by the authors have shown that the values of heat capacity C1 and heat of evaporation C2 for the solution do not differ greatly from the respective values for water; therefore, these parameters have been taken the same as for water: C1=4.19 kJ per kg degrees and C2=2269 kJ per kg. The experimental results are given in Table 40.

Table 40.








1 mass of empty measuring glass mo , grams


2 mass of the solution prior its entering the reactor m1, grams





3 mass of the solution after outflow from the reactor m2, grams





4 mass difference, inlet and outlet, m= m1- m2, grams





5 - reactor inlet temperature t1 , degrees





6 - reactor outlet temperature t2 , degrees





7 - temperature differencet= t2- t1, degrees





8 - duration of the experiment, t, s





9 number of rotations of the electric meter disc during the experiment n, rot.





10 electric energy consumption according to the electric meter readings, E1=n3600/600, kJ

Note: 600 rotations of the electric meter correspond to 1 kW h of electric power. The electric meter was connected in the power supply circuit of the reactor before the rectifier and registered power consumption for the reactor operation and the current rectifier. The voltmeter and the ammeter are connected in the reactor energy supply circuit after the rectifier and are aimed for measuring the electric energy consumed by the reactor.









11 readings of voltmeter V, volts





12 ammeter readings I, amperes





13 electric energy consumption according to the readings of the voltmeter and the ammeter, E2=IVt, kJ









14 power energy for heating the solution, E3= C1 m1 t, kJ





15 energy consumed for forming of vapours, E4= C2 m, kJ





16 total energy for heating and vapours E0= E3+ E4, kJ





17 COP of the reactor according to the electric meter readings

K1= E0/ E1









18 COP of the reactor according to the voltmeter and ammeter readings K2= E0/ E2










The commission has stated that during the experiment it can be easily seen that gases are flowing out of the connection pipes of the cathode and anode spaces. These gases are products of the decomposition of the solution, mainly of the water molecules, and are contributing to the decrease of the weight of water. The authors have not yet elaborated a method for measuring the quantity of these gases to those time, and therefore their energy content was added to the energy content of the water vapours. Given that the energy content of the gases is much higher than that of the vapours, the COP of the reactor is higher as stated in Table 39. COP of the reactor is based on the reading of the voltmeter and the ammeter and needs to be improved, because the reactor generates high frequency oscillations, which influence the readings of the instruments. The commission states that the reactor also generates light and sound energy.

The commission is stating that if the contribution of the emitted gases, the light energy and the outer energy losses of the reactor are considered the COP values are higher than those established.

The commission emphasizes the newness of the plasma formation phenomena at the electrolysis of water, associated with incompletely studied processes, which generate excess energy and considers that these deserve further thorough study with the aim of finding their possible uses in different scientific and technical areas.

The experiment demonstrates vividly that the plasma electrolytic reactor generates energy in the form of heat of the heated solution, vapour of various temperature, hydrogen and oxygen as well as light radiation noise and high frequency electric oscillations [65].

In order to measure all above-mentioned components of total energy generated by the plasma-electrolytic reactor it is necessary to have the corresponding instruments and equipment. We have not had such possibility due to lack of financing, thats why we have managed to measure thermal energy only and quantity of generated gases with the help of an anemometer.



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