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11.2. Models of Water Molecules and its Ions


Water can demonstrate a variety of properties. The possibilities of this variety are available due to the differences of water molecule structure. The information obtained by us allows to discover and analyses the structural peculiarities of water molecule. We have shown that the electrons in the atom have no orbital movement, they interact with the nucleus like a rotating whipping top. As there are the electrons and the protons of the like electrical fields and magnetic ones with vividly expressed magnetic poles in the structure, it gives them the possibility to interact with each other and to limit their rapprochement. Due to this fact the bond between the valence electrons in the molecule and between the electrons and the protons in the atom can be depicted with the help of simple lines.

We have already noted that the bonds between the atoms in the molecule form the surface electrons, which we call valence electrons. Valence electrons of the atoms, which form a molecule, can get connected with each other or with the protons of the nuclei if the proton cell is free.

Hitherto, the water molecule models are depicted in such a way that the angle between the hydrogen atoms is 105 [46], [58], [109]. We do not know the way this value has been derived. But if we suppose that it corresponds to reality (we have doubt in it), the water molecule model will be such as it is shown in Fig. 71 taking into consideration the model of the atomic nucleus of oxygen (Fig. 28). This model gives the reason to believe that the electrostatic repulsive forces operating between the first (e1, P1) and the second (e2, P2) hydrogen atoms increase the angle between them up to 105. But this model does not explain the reason of water expansion during freezing. If we imagine that the hydrogen atoms are connected with the axis electrons of the oxygen atom (Fig. 72), the reason of water expansion during its freezing can be explained.

As during cooling the electrons emit photons and approach the atomic nucleus, six ring electrons of the oxygen atom in water molecule (Fig. 72) approach the atomic nucleus and remove the axial electrons from the nucleus by their static field. In this case the distance between the hydrogen atoms arranged on the water molecule axis is increased. Due to it, the length of the bond with the neighbouring water molecules is increased during its freezing. Taking it into consideration we prefer the water molecule model shown in Fig. 72, and well use this model only in the future.





Fig. 71. Water molecule structure with the angled of 105 between the hydrogen atoms



The structure of hydrogen atom (Fig. 50) demonstrates that if this atom unites with the first electron of oxygen atom by its only electron, the proton will be on the surface of the molecule and will form a zone with positive charge, which is generated by the proton of hydrogen atom (Fig. 72). The proton of the second hydrogen atom forms the same zone. It is connected with the second electron of oxygen atom (Fig. 72).





Fig. 72. Diagram of the first (charged) model of water molecule:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 are the numbers of the electrons of oxygen atom; P is the nuclei of hydrogen atoms (protons); and are the numbers of hydrogen electrons.



The negatively charged zone is formed by the oxygen atom electrons arranged on a ring round the oxygen atom axis [2], [54], [55], [58]. Let us pay attention to the fact that binding energies between the proton and the electron (Fig. 72) in the hydrogen atom as well as binding energies of the first electron of the oxygen atom with its nucleus have the values, which are close in their magnitude on the corresponding energy levels (Table 35, 36) and Fig. 72.

The new theory puts the following questing before us: how many electrons are in water molecule? Do the first and the second electrons of oxygen atom always remain in their cells when the electrons of hydrogen atoms come nearer to them? We have no definite answer to this question and we suppose that all possible variants are realized. In some cases the first and the second electrons of oxygen atom are absent in water molecule, and their places are occupied by the electrons of hydrogen atoms. But the presence of these electrons in water molecule is not excluded, because when valence electrons of the atoms unite, they are connected not only with the protons of the neighboring atom, but also with its valence electrons. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned facts, the structure of water molecule can differ in quantity of electrons in it, and it is necessary to give a name to these structures.

We have called the structure of water molecule with a complete set of electrons the first model (Fig. 72). There exist the possibilities of the formation of water molecules not with ten electrons, but with eight electrons (Fig. 73). Let us call such model the second one.

The main differences between the first (Fig. 72) and the second (Fig, 73) models of water molecule are in the fact that two coupled electrons are in the cells of the first electron and the second (axial) one of the oxygen atom of the first model of water molecule; in the second model of water molecule, one electron is situated in these cells, and we have every reason to call them non-coupled electrons (Fig. 73).




Fig. 73. Diagram of the second (discharged) model of water molecule.



When coupled electrons are arranged only at one end of the oxygen atom axis (to the right), well call such model the third one (Fig. 74).

If the hypothesis concerning different quantity of electrons in water molecules is confirmed, this fact will be a decisive one in obtaining surplus energy during water electrolysis. It will determine the reason of positive and negative results of various experiments, which have been carried our for the check of the fact of existence of additional energy during water electrolysis [67]. If water contains more charged molecules, the experiment will give a positive result. When there are many discharged molecules, the result will be negative. The approximate calculations demonstrate availability of a difference in mass of one liter of charged and discharged water. It can be registered with the help of modern measurement devices.





Fig. 74. Diagram of the third model of water molecule.



Later on well show that the water molecule clusters, which have positive and negative charges, are formed before the thunderstorm discharges in the clouds. Different temperature in the clouds is the reason of the division of the water molecule clusters. Now we have an opportunity to calculate this difference and to try to model the thunderstorm discharge process and to make it a controlled one.

It is known that water can have alkali or acid properties. Alkali properties are formed at the expense of the increased content of hydroxyl in water (Fig. 75).




Fig. 75. Diagram of structure of hydroxyl



As it is considered now, acid properties of water are formed by free protons , but we do not agree with this idea, because the proton is a very active formation, thats why it cannot exist in water in a free state. Acid properties of water are formed by an increased content of positively charged ions of hydroxonium (Fig. 76).

In all models of water molecules (Fig. 72-74) the third eighth electrons of oxygen atom remains free forming a negative potential zone on its surface. The values of the third and the fourth potentials of ionization of the oxygen atom point out to the fact that the ring electrons are arranged nearer to the nucleus of the oxygen atom than the axial ones, thats why the majority of their electrical and magnetic lines of force is included in the bond with the nucleus of the oxygen atom, thats why they are less a active than the first electron and the second one. One of the ring electrons should be lifted in its cells and be removed from the nucleus of the oxygen atom in order to be connected with the proton or the electron of the neighboring atom.

In order to realize such process it should absorb the proton of the environment.





Fig. 76. Structure of the ion of hydroxonium



If it takes place, it will move off the nucleus, come nearer to the surface of the atom, and the conditions will appear for the connection of the lines of force of its magnetic field with the lines of force of magnetic field of the proton or the electron. If one of circular electron of oxygen atom unites with the proton, the ion of hydroxonium is formed, which forms acid properties of water (Fig. 76). If the events develop in such a way, three zones with positive potential are formed on the surface of water molecule, and it becomes a positively charged ion , which is called hydroxonium (Fig. 76). As we have already proved that there are no protons in free state in electrolytic solution, it means that acid properties of the solution are determined not by the proton (positive ion ), but by the positive ion of hydroxonium . We know that the process of the removal of the electron from the atomic nucleus is accompanied by the absorption of the photons form the environment. Thats why hydroxonium ion formation process will be an endothermic one.

Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 is formed from water as well. There are two oxygen atoms 2O and two hydrogen atoms 2H in its structure (Fig. 77).





Fig. 77. Diagram of hydrogen peroxide model H2O2



Binding energies between the protons and the electrons taken from the calculation results of the spectra of the atoms and the ions are given in the diagrams of water molecules (Figs 72-74), hydroxyl (Fig. 72) and hydroxonium (Fig. 73). In our previous publications [70] we have treated with faith the calculation of binding energies between the atoms in the molecules carried out by chemists, thats why we have taken a part of the values of these energies from the chemical calculations and a part from the spectrum calculation results. But we have already shown that binding energies of the electrons with atomic nuclei determined not with the help of chemical calculations, but from the results of spectroscopy of the atoms and the ions are closer to the data obtained during water electrolysis. Thats why well use mainly these data (Figs 72-76).



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The Foundations of Physchemistry of Microworld

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