10.11. Structure of the Water Molecule
Water is the most widely spread chemical combination. Numerous works are devoted to the study of this combination. In 1951, the Danish scientist N. Bjerrum studied the structure and the properties of ice and suggested the water molecule model given in Fig. 63 , , .
Fig. 63. Diagram of the water molecule structure
In this diagram, one can see the impression of the notions concerning the orbital movement of the electron in the atoms. Having determined the lack of orbital movement of the electrons in the atoms we did not dare changing the arrangement of the water molecule and gave it in our previous publications in the way, which is given in Fig. 64.
We cannot help admiring the exactness, with which valence angle 104.5° is determined between the hydrogen atoms in water molecule. It is calculated wit the help of indirect methods, which originate from the notions concerning the distribution of the electrons along the orbitals. These notions have been formed on the basis of the solutions of Schroedinger’s equations, which, as it is known, predict only density of probability of stay of the electron in this or that area of the atom.
We have already shown that Schroedinger’s equation operates outside the framework of the space-matter-time unity axiom, and due to this fact it distorts the actual physical and chemical phenomena of the microworld. That’s why we have every reason to doubt in the structure of the water molecule suggested by Bjerrum.
The diagram of the water molecule model shown in Fig. 64 takes into account the existing notions concerning the structure of this molecule, but without the orbital movement of the electrons. We have used successfully this model for analysis of physical and chemical processes during plasma electrolysis of water. Now the model of the nucleus of the oxygen atom determined by us makes us change the existing notions concerning the water molecule structure. Showing a new structure of the water molecule we’ll note that it will not only change our energy calculations for plasma water electrolysis as we show later on, but allows us to advance in our search and to describe the processes, which take place in the thunderstorms discharges in the clouds.
Fig. 64. Diagram of the water molecule model: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 are the numbers of the electrons of the oxygen atom, N is the nucleus of the oxygen atom, P is the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms (the protons); and are the numbers of the electrons of the hydrogen atoms.
In Fig. 65, the water molecule structure is shown, which originates from the structures of the atomic nuclei of oxygen and hydrogen. Two electrons 1 and 2 of the oxygen atom are arranged on the atomic axis, and six rest ones are arranged in a circle, which is perpendicular to the axis. One can suppose that the total electrostatic field of six electrons arranged in a circle (let us call them circle electrons) remove the first and the second axis electrons at a larger distance than the distance from the atomic nucleus, at which he circle electron are situated. That’ why the axis electrons of the oxygen atom are the main valence electrons of his atom. The electrons of the hydrogen atom are connected to them, and a water molecule is formed (Fig. 65).
The electrons of the hydrogen atom are designated with the symbols and , and the protons of the hydrogen atoms are designated with the symbols and . Let us remind that we give the numbers to the electrons in accordance with the sequence of the increase of their ionization potentials. We have given the first number to the electron of the oxygen atom, which has the least ionization potential =13.618 eV. We have given the second number to the second electron of the oxygen atom, which has ionization potential of =35.116 eV.
Fig. 65. Diagram of the water molecule model: spatial diagram; b) linear diagram
It should be noted that when ambient temperature is decreased, the circle electrons of the oxygen atom in the water molecule come close to the nucleus (the axis of the water molecule, and with their total electrical field they remove two main axis electrons from the nucleus, which form connections in the water molecule clusters. Due to it, when water is frozen, the connections between the molecules in the clusters become longer, and frozen water molecule becomes longer and increases the volume of the clusters. This is the main reason of expansion of water when it is frozen.
10.12. Structure of the Ammonia Molecule
Ammonia NH3 is colourless gas with pungent smell. It is clear from Fig. 66 that one hydrogen atom (the electron and the proton ) with its electron becomes connected with the axis electron of the nitrogen atom. Two other hydrogen atoms are connected by their electrons with two electrons of the nitrogen atom arranged in its ring.
A question arises at once: why are the hydrogen atoms connected by their electrons with the electrons of the nitrogen atom? The structures of both the electron and the proton are such that the protons of the hydrogen atoms can be connected with the electrons of the nitrogen atom. We have no answer to this question.
Fig. 66. Diagram of the ammonia molecule : N is the nucleus of the nitrogen atom; 1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7 are the electrons of the nitrogen atom, , and are the electrons of three hydrogen atoms; , are the protons of the hydrogen atoms.
We think that the above mentioned method of formation of the structures of the atoms and the molecules is enough in order to build the models of other atoms and molecules.