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9.14. Diagram of Nucleus of Sodium Atom

 

Sodium is the eleventh element in the periodic table. It is situated in the first group of this table [2]. It means that the nucleus of this atom should have the elements of the nucleus of the lithium atom (Fig. 23). In Nature, 100% of the atoms of this element have the nuclei with eleven protons and twelve neutrons (Fig. 31). There are isotopes of this element with various periods of half-life [120], [121].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Fig. 31. Diagram of the nucleus of the sodium atom

 

 

The upper part of the nucleus of the sodium atom (Fig. 31) contains the elements of the composition of the nucleus of the lithium atom (Fig. 23, b), thats why lithium and sodium are situated in the same group of the periodic table [2], [120], [121].

 

 

 

9.15. Diagram of Nucleus of Magnesium Atom

 

Magnesium is the twelfth element in the periodic table (Fig. 32). It is situated in the second group of this table, thats why the elements of the nucleus of the beryllium atom should be in the structure of its nucleus (Fig. 24, b). In Nature, 78.99% of the nuclei of the magnesium atoms contain 12 protons and 12 neutrons (Fig. 32, a) [120].

Let us pay attention to the flat structure of the nucleus of the beryllium atom (Fig. 24). There are five neutrons in one plane, and four protons are connected to them. The same structure is formed in the composition of the nucleus of the magnesium atom (Fig. 32, a). The axial neutrons are shown in grey.

There are twelve protons and twelve neutrons in the nuclear structure. The twelfth proton is situated in the axis of the nucleus in its power part. In Nature, 10.00% of the nuclei of the magnesium atom have the thirteenth neutron (Fig. 32,b), which is connected to the lower axial neutron. The fourteenth neutron is situated over the upper axial proton. In Nature, there are 11.01% of the magnesium atoms, whose nucleus has 14 neutrons [120], [121].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


a) b)

Fig. 32. Diagram of the nucleus of the magnesium atom

 

 

 

 

9.16. Structure of Nucleus of Aluminium Atom

 

Aluminium is the thirteenth element of the periodic table. In Nature, 100% of the atoms of this element have 13 protons and 14 neutrons. The nuclei with large number of the neutrons belong to short-life isotopes of this element. As aluminium is included into the third group of the periodic table, it should contain the elements of the nucleus of the boron atom. The structure of this nucleus is given in Fig. 25, a. In Fig. 33, the structure of the nucleus of the aluminium atom with the specified part, in which the nuclei of the boron atom are present.

Thus, in the structure of more complicated nuclei the structures of more simple nuclei are repeated in accordance with the arrangement of chemical elements according to the groups of the periodic table by D.I. Mendeleyev [2].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Fig. 33. Diagram of structure of the nucleus of aluminium atom

 

 

 

 

9.17. Structure of Nucleus of Silicon Atom

 

Silicon is the fourteenth element. Its stable nucleus (there are 92.23% of such nuclei) contains 14 protons and 14 neutrons (Fig. 34). As silicon is included in the fourth groupp of the periodic table together with carbon, the nucleus of the carbon atom should be in the structure of the nucleus of the silicon atom. It can be represented in two types: the flat on (Fig. 26, a) and the spatial one (Fig. 26, b).

There are 4.67% of the nuclei of the silicon atoms with one surplus neutron, and there are 3.10% of the nuclei with two surplus neutrons. One surplus neutron is situated in lower axial part of the nucleus between the central neutron and lower proton. The second surplus neutron is situated on the axis as well.

We lack knowledge in chemistry. If we knew better the properties of the chemical elements, for the study of which we have no time, the nuclear structure could be presented more exactly. We make the first steps on this wonderful and interesting way, and we hope that these people who follow us will describe more exactly the details, which have remained unclear for us.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


a)

b)

 

 

Fig. 34. Structure of the nucleus of the silicon atom

 

 

 

 

9.18. Structure of Nucleus of Phosphorus Atom

 

Phosphorus is the fifteenth element of the periodic table [2]. It is situated in fifth group together with nitrogen atom that is why it contents the nucleus of this atom (Fig. 27). In Nature, 100% of the nuclei of this chemical element contain 15 protons and 16 neutrons (Fig. 35). There are short-life isotopes of this element as well [120], [121]. As it is clear (Fig. 35), the upper part and the lower one of the nucleus of the phosphorus atom form the nucleus of the nitrogen atom in the aggregate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Fig. 35. Structure of the nucleus of the phosphorus atom

 

 

 

 

9.19. Structure of Nucleus of Sulphur Atom

 

Sulphur is the sixteenth element of the periodic table. It is situated in its sixth group together with oxygen, thats why the upper part and the lower part of its nucleus form the nucleus of the oxygen atom in the aggregate (Fig. 28). Each of 95.02% of the nuclei of this element contains 16 protons and 16 neutrons. In Fig. 36, the structure of the main nucleus of this element, which has 16 protons and 16 neutrons, is shown [120], [121].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Fig. 36. Structure of the nucleus of the sulphur atom

 

 

 

 

9.20. Structure of Nucleus of Chlorine Atom

 

Chlorine is the seventeenth chemical element of the periodic table (Fig. 37). Each of 75.77% of the nuclei of this element has 17 protons and 18 neutrons, and 24.23% of the nuclei have three surplus neutron [120].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Fig. 37. Structure of the nucleus of the chlorine atom

 

 

 

 

3.21. Structure of Nucleus of Argon Atom

 

Argon is the eighteenth element in the periodic table. It is included in the eighth group of this table. Each of 99.60% of the nuclei of this element contains 18 protons and 22 neutrons. Each of 0.337% of the nuclei has 18 protons and 18 neutrons, and 0.063% of the nuclei have 18 protons and 20 neutrons [121].

Let us pay attention to the structure of the nucleus of the chlorine atom (Fig. 37). It has three tiers. The upper and the lower tiers consist of the nuclei of the carbon atom. The middle tier remains unfinished. It is asymmetric. It is necessary to add one more proton. Then the middle tier will become symmetric. But the electrostatic forces of repulsion, which exist between the protons of the tiers, will be increased. In order to reduce the influence of these forces, it is necessary to increase the distance between the tiers. It is achieved with the help of four surplus neutrons, and a symmetric nucleus of the argon atom is produced (Fig. 38) [120], [121].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Fig. 38. Structure of the nucleus of the argon atom

 

 

 

 

9.22. Structure of Nucleus of Potassium Atom

 

Potassium (Fig. 39) is the nineteenth element of the periodic table. The nucleus of this atom contents the nucleus of lithium atom (Fig. 23). In Nature, 93.258% of the nuclei of this element have 19 protons and 20 neutrons. There are the potassium isotopes with two and three surplus neutrons.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Fig. 39. Structure of the nucleus of the potassium atom

 

 

 

 

9.23. Structure of Nucleus of Calcium Atom

 

Calcium is the twentieth element in the periodic table (Fig. 40). In Nature, 96.94% of the nuclei of the atom of this element have 20 protons and 20 neutrons. The isotopes of this element have 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 surplus neutrons.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Fig. 40. Structure of the nucleus of the calcium atom

 

 

The analysis of the structure of the nucleus of the potassium atom shows that it has the same number of the neutrons as the nucleus of the calcium atom. It means that one free place for the proton should be in the nucleus of the potassium atom. And we see it. One more tier has appeared in the nucleus of the potassium atom instead of one middle tier. One of them has an empty cell for the proton. Let us put a proton in this cells, and well get a symmetric structure of the nucleus of the calcium atom (Fig. 40) with the nucleus of the beryllium atom (Fig. 24) [120], [121].

The model looks well, but it should be taken into consideration that it is built on the grounds of a flat model of the carbon atom. If we take a spatial model of the nucleus of the carbon atom as a basis, the structure of the nucleus of the calcium atom can be different. We leave the possibility of construction of such model to other investigators.

 

 

 

9.24. Structure of the Nucleus of the Scandium Atom

 

Scandium is included in the third group of the periodic table; thats why the nucleus of the boron atom should be repeated in the structure of its nucleus. One hundred per cent of the nuclei of this element contain 21 proton and 24 neutrons (Fig. 41) [120].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Fig. 41. Diagram of the scandium nucleus

 

 

 




       
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The Foundations of Physchemistry of Microworld

Copyright 2003 Kanarev Ph. M.

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